有效实现滨水景观亲水性的途径

1、驳岸设计

驳岸是滨水环境中陆地和水体的连接部分,它拥有最丰富的生态资源,是景观亲水性能否充分实现的重要途径之一。对于驳岸的设计,要结合原有的驳岸形态,考虑到现在人们对于自然生态环境的向往,要尽量保持原有岸线形态,若需要人工改造,在充分考虑到驳岸生态性和安全性的前提下,一般可以设计为自然曲折的形式,在水位较低的水域还可以适当地降低驳岸的高度,拉近游人与水体之间的距离,如自然式生态护坡,这种驳岸形式不仅可以增加滨水景观的亲水性,还可以根据水位的涨落进行自我调节,适当地对防洪起到了一定作用。但驳岸的设计形式不能仅仅局限于自然形式,还可以适当地采用多种人工设计形式,辟如亲水栈道,亲水平台等。


2、亲水小品设计


滨水景观的亲水小品是亲水性设计的点睛之笔,是除了驳岸等硬质景观之外的软质景观,滨水景观对游人是否具有吸引力在很大程度上也是在于亲水小品是否亲水和新意。在人工设计的滨水景观中,往往可以根据滨水景观的类型以及各个年龄段游人的需求设置小品,如亲水座椅,亲水雕塑,漫水桥,景观绿化等。在亲水小品形态的设计上,可以根据地方历史和人文特色进行设计,或运用具有地方特色的设计元素对其进行装饰。


3、空间环境设计


滨水景观的空间是游人进行游憩活动的承载空间,是滨水景观设计的主体,整个滨水景观是否具有亲水性可以根据驳岸,小品以及最主要的空间环境的设计来判定,在对滨水空间环境进行设计时,既要根据不同功能需求划分多样性的空间,又要考虑到滨水区的自然环境承载能力而不能使空间环境过于繁复。其功能区的划分可以包括滨水步道,娱乐休闲区,健身活动区,滨水观景区等,除此之外,对于管理区的设置也很重要,管理设施可以方便维护整个滨水空间环境及设施,还可以为其空间的安全性提供帮助。在滨水空间环境的设计中,还可以利用旱喷广场或亲水小品适当的把水体引到岸上来,如浅水池,叠水等与水体相呼应的元素,形成一个可以使游人与水体充分互动的滨水开放空间。


4、日本人性化的设计对亲水性设计的启示


日本的设计素来以人性化著称,不管是工业设计还是景观设计都可以感觉到细腻的设计情感,对于景观的设计,日本人擅长把自然景观浓缩到精心组织的园林景观中,体现了其对自然景观的钟爱和细心挖掘,比如植物的配置和栽种是经过精心挑选和修剪过的,运用细腻的水面的波动引起人的遐思,石材的选择也是遵循人工自然化的理念,这些都表明日本对自然的感悟是丰富且特殊的,这样的感悟使日本的设计充满了精心和细致,也使它现代的景观设计既满足了社会的发展,又处处充满着人性化的影子,并且延续了日本的传统特质。滨水景观的亲水性同样的追求的是以人为本的人性化设计理念,在追求细腻的同时,还应该不忘对地方特色的挖掘,要在真正意义上做到具有特色的人性化设计。


1, revetment design

Revetment is the connection part of the waterfront environment, land and water, it is one of the most abundant ecological resources, is one of the important way to landscape hydrophilic can be fully realized. To the design of the revetment, want to combine the original moorings, considering it is now for the natural ecological environment is yearning, to try to keep original shoreline configuration, if need artificial transformation, in under the premise of fully considering the bulkhead ecological and safety, generally can be designed in the form of natural twists and turns, in the waters of low water level can also be appropriate to reduce the height of the bulkhead, reduce the distance between visitors and water body, such as natural ecological slope protection, this kind of revetment can not only increase the hydrophilicity of waterfront landscape, can also according to the fluctuation of water level self adjusting, appropriately for flood control have played a role. But the design of revetment form can not be limited to the natural form, can also use a variety of forms of artificial design appropriately, for example hydrophilic road, pro level units, etc.

2, hydrophilic sketch design

Waterfront landscape hydrophilic sketch is the nods eyeball pen of hydrophilic design, is besides hard landscape such as revetment soft landscape of waterfront landscape is attractive to tourists to a great extent, is also is whether the hydrophilic sketch hydrophilic and new idea. In the artificial design of waterfront landscape, often can be according to the type of waterfront landscape and visitors of all ages requirements set, such as hydrophilic seats, hydrophilic sculpture, water bridge, landscaping, etc. On the design of the hydrophilic sketch form, can be designed according to the local historical and cultural features, or use with local characteristics of design elements for decoration.

3, space environment design

Space of waterfront landscape is the bearing of visitors for recreation activity space, is the main part of the waterfront landscape design, the entire waterfront landscape is hydrophilic can according to the bulkhead, sketch, and the main space environment design to determine, in the waterfront space environment design, should according to the requirements of different function space diversity, and take into account the waterfront natural environment carrying capacity and cannot make the space is too heavy and complicated environment. Can include waterfront trail for the division of the functional areas, entertainment and leisure area, activity of fitness, the concept of waterfront scenic spot, etc., in addition, for the setting of administrative zone is also very important, convenient management facilities can maintain the whole waterfront space environment and facilities, can also provide help for the security of its space. In the design of waterfront space environment, still can use the spray dry square or hydrophilic sketch appropriate to guide water to the shore, such as shallow pool, fold that coincide with the water element, such as water to form a can make visitors to interact with water full of waterfront open space.

4, Japan humanized design of hydrophilic enlightenment

Japanese design is famous for its humanization, industrial design and landscape design can feel emotion, exquisite design to the design of the landscape, the Japanese are good at the natural landscape landscape of enriched to elaborate organization, reflects its affection for the natural landscape and careful excavation, such as the configuration of plants and plant are carefully chosen and manicured, using exquisite caused people's random fluctuations in the water, the choice of stone material is also follows the concept of human nature, all of these show that Japanese comprehension of nature is rich and special, such feeling makes the Japanese design is full of careful and meticulous, also make it modern landscape design not only meet the social development, and everywhere is full of the shadow of the humanized, and continued the traditional characteristics of Japan. Waterfront landscape hydrophilic same pursuit is people-oriented humanized design concept, in the pursuit of exquisite, at the same time should also do not forget the local characteristics of digging, if we want to achieve the characteristic in the true sense of the humanized design.



 
 
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